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Science & Technology

Isaac Newton, like Albert Einstein, is a quintessential symbol of the human intellect and its ability to decode the secrets of nature. Newton's fundamental contributions to science include the quantification of gravitational attraction, the discovery that white light is actually a mixture of immutable spectral colors, and the formulation of the calculus. Yet there is another, more mysterious side to Newton that is imperfectly known, a realm of activity that spanned some thirty years of his life, although he kept it largely hidden from his contemporaries and colleagues.

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The fourth in a series of online collections from Harvard University, Expeditions and Discoveries delivers maps, photographs, and published materials, as well as field notes, letters, and a unique range of manuscript materials on selected expeditions between 1626 and 1953. The collection is made possible with the generous support of the Arcadia Fund . In the 19th and 20th centuries, Harvard University played a significant role—as underwriter, participant, collector, and repository—for pace-setting expeditions around the world. For Internet users, Expeditions and Discoveries provides selective access to Harvard’s multidisciplinary records of those expeditions.

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The Mercator Globes Gerard Mercator was a publisher of maps and atlases but he also published two globes — the terrestrial globe of 1541 and the celestial globe of 1551. The globes were an instant commercial success and were the largest (42 cm) that had been produced to date. This online exhibit allows the viewer to study detailed images for each of the globes. The globes are now on permanent exhibit just outside of the entrance to the Map Collection in Pusey Library. Viewing Features of the Exhibition This exhibition offers a unique approach for viewing each globe.

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Wednesday, Aug 31, 2011 South Central China and Tibet: Hotspot of Diversity For over a century, Arboretum staff have explored and documented the natural and cultural resources of Asia. In 1924, a three-year expedition departed for one of the most unusual areas on earth—the first of many Arboretum expeditions to a region that is floristically one of the richest in the world. Seventy years later, other Arboretum expeditions returned to collect and inventory the flora.

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American Environmental Photographs, 1891-1936 Browse Collection by: Collection Connection Classroom resources for teachers About This Collection The images in the American Environmental Photographs Collection were created by faculty, staff, and students in the Department of Botany at the University of Chicago from the 1890s to the 1930s. Among the most active photographers contributing to the collection were Henry C. Cowles, George D. Fuller, George E. Nichols, Charles J. Chamberlain, Ira B. Meyer, Paul J. Sedgwick, William J. Cribbs, and Ezra J. Kraus. The earliest photographs in the collection were taken in 1891 in the arid desert landscapes of California, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada.

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About Enrico Fermi Enrico Fermi (photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory) (From the Biographical Note, Guide to the Enrico Fermi Collection, Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library) Enrico Fermi (1901-1954), Charles H. Swift Distinguished Service Professor of Physics at the University of Chicago, and 1938 Nobel Prize winner in physics, is best known to the general public for his leadership of the Manhattan Project team, which succeeded in obtaining the first controlled self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This experiment, which was carried out at the University of Chicago on December 2, 1942, made possible the development of the atomic bomb.

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- Biomechanics of Motion Collection Description The purpose of this Biomechanics of Movement collection is to create a structure and a web based user interface for researchers and students to access and utilize video clips of human movements. This interactive digital archive resource provides a mechanism for bringing together engineers, animators, computer scientists, and kinesiologists to collectively solve meaningful real world problems fundamental to functional movement. This digital collection of movement video clips is created by members of the USC Biomechanics Research Laboratory in collaboration with USC Libraries. CITE AS: Creator. Title. Date. From the Biomechanics of Motion Digital Archive. Digitally reproduced by the University of Southern California Digital Archive.

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- Auto Club Collection Description The Automobile Club of Southern California Digital Archive provides documentation on the region's transportation history, expecially Los Angeles from 1892 to 1963, from the Auto Club's Corporate Archives. The Digital Archive includes: a selection of 98 historic strip maps, illustrating the development of major Southern California routes; 498 photographs from the general photograph collection, depicting buildings, businesses, streets, and points of interest; and 650 photographs from engineering notebooks along with searchable transcriptions of the engineers' notes documenting the conditions of streets, highways, bridges, railroads, etc.

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Project Background This Pilot Project was first conceived in May 1999 to provide Web access to high use maps from the University of California-Berkeley's Earth Sciences and Map Library's collection. One-time funds were requested and received from the Library's collections budget to cover scanning and other project costs. The U.S. Geological Survey's topographic quadrangles of the San Francisco Bay region were selected for digitizing. These maps are in the Public Domain and have no copyright restrictions, plus the geographic area selected would be a high use to our primary clientele and of interest for off-site users. Access is provided to both the 15- and 7.5-minute USGS topographic quadrangles, spanning more than 100 years of mapping (1885-1999). Geographic coverage extends from Pt.

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American Journeys contains more than 18,000 pages of eyewitness accounts of North American exploration, from the sagas of Vikings in Canada in AD1000 to the diaries of mountain men in the Rockies 800 years later. Read the words of explorers, Indians, missionaries, traders and settlers as they lived through the founding moments of American history. View, search, print, or download more than 150 rare books, original manuscripts, and classic travel narratives from the library and archives of the Wisconsin Historical Society. To get started, simply select an activity on the toolbar above. Funded by the U.S. Institute of Museum & Library Services and by private donors, American Journeys is a collaborative project of the Wisconsin Historical Society and National History Day.

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From Alchemy to Chemistry: Five Hundred Years of Rare and Interesting Books This website grew out of an exhibit held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Rare Book Room in April 2000. The Eastern Illinois Section of the American Chemical Society provided support for the construction of this website. The exhibit, "From Alchemy to Chemistry: 500 Years of Rare and Interesting Books," was co-curated by Tina Chrzastowski (Chemistry Librarian), Vera Mainz (Director, VOICE NMR Lab, School of Chemical Sciences), and Gregory Girolami (Professor of Chemistry).

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Over the past 300 years or so, Scottish scientists have provided the world with important ideas and inventions. Many of these shape our lives today.

Science is behind many objects we take for granted, such as Alexander Graham Bell's telephone and John Logie Baird's television. It is thanks to scientists like Alexander Fleming that we now have life-saving advances in medicine.

Imagine what life would be like without the work of these, and other, pioneering Scottish scientists.

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Propaganda – A Weapon of War is a small snapshot of Second World War propaganda that can be found in the National Library of Scotland’s collections.

Between 1939 and 1945, both Allied and Axis Governments greatly influenced wartime behaviour and attitudes through propaganda. This took various forms: the printed word and pictorial leaflets, radio broadcasts and cinema and poster campaigns.

White propaganda was mostly practical information intended for the Home Front. Black propaganda targeted enemy morale, and there was a strong Scottish involvement in the clandestine organisation that developed it – the Political Warfare Executive.

On this website you'll find examples of British Government propaganda, from 'Make do and Mend' to 'Tag und Nacht'.

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The Scottish Beekeepers' Association has deposited the Moir Rare Book Collection of 250 volumes relating to all aspects of beekeeping. It is one of the very finest collections of rare beekeeping books in the world, including items published as far back as 1525.

The foundation of the collection was due to the efforts of John William Moir (1851-1940). Inspired by the example of Scots missionary David Livingstone, Moir and his brother emigrated from Scotland in 1877 to southeast Africa, where they were initially involved in the creation of alternative transport routes to help obviate the need for slave transport. It was later, after settling in the Shire Highlands of present-day Malawi, that John Moir began beekeeping, due to the fact that his crops required pollination.

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Blog September 9, 2009 About CHODARR What is CHODARR? CHODARR stands for Community Health Online Digital Archive and Research Resource which is a publicly accessible virtual library of community-based and government publications. It is a permanent, catalogued and full-text online archive of grey literature and research materials related to health and social welfare policy. The CHODARR archive includes documents that are not normally published by commercial publishers.

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Philosophy of the Journal In a climate of high subscription charges often levied by commercial publishers and learned societies alike, ARKIVOC was launched in 2000 as a journal with a very different philosophy: it was designed for universal on-demand distribution at no cost to authors (no page charges or other fees), or readers (no access or downloading charges). Many of the standard publishing procedures are used in ARKIVOC, but a major difference is that the "Control Board" which runs the journal is unpaid. ARKIVOC also has a very large Editorial Board of Referees, currently with close to 1,000 members. ARKIVOC is unique from most such boards in that about half our members come from outside Western Europe, North America and Japan.

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Contemporary Aesthetics (CA) is an international, interdisciplinary, peer- and blind-reviewed online journal of contemporary theory, research, and application in aesthetics. This open-access journal is published on a rolling basis, and new content is freely available on the web at http://www.contempaesthetics.org . The publication is annually archived by the University of Michigan Library at this site. This archive consists of the whole CA backfile--from the first to the most recently completed volume --and is fully searchable and can be browsed by title, author, and volume. According to the editors of CA , in recent years aesthetics has grown into a rich and varied discipline.

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The Western Michigan University Libraries United States Civil War Collection was launched in 2007 with 8 diaries of men with connections to Michigan or the Midwest. In 2009 the Collection expanded to include a selection of letters by Samuel Hodgman from Climax, Michigan, who served with the 7th Michigan Infantry. The addition of the letters was made possible by a donation from the Friends of the Western Michigan University Libraries in honor of Bettina Meyer, retired Associate Dean. The current collection represents diverse military experiences, ranging from a musician to a prisoner of war. The handwritten originals have full transcriptions that are searchable with subjects.

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Dental Cosmos, a Monthly Record of Dental Science was the first enduring national journal for the American dental profession, and one of the most significant in the early history of American dentistry. The foundation of dental practice was documented and debated in its pages from 1859 through 1936, when it merged with the Journal of the American Dental Association , serving as a cornerstone for JADA and the model of what a successful dental journal could be. Many of these original source articles are still cited and considered classics in the field. The conversion of Dental Cosmos (1859 to 1936) from print to electronic was made possible through the generous support of the Colgate-Palmolive Company. Last update December 4, 2006.

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May 2010, Vol. 13, No. 1 This journal is sponsored by the American Association for History and Computing (AAHC), organized at a conference held in Cincinnati in January 1996. The AAHC aspires to promote and develop interest in the use of computers in all types of historical study at every level, in both teaching and research. We believe that computers and computing are rapidly changing important elements of the work of historians and students of history, constituting a major transformation in the way knowledge is created and communicated. A major goal of this journal is to help define useful standards to maximize the utility of computers in historical studies. We welcome contributions from those interested in issues or resources related to history and computing.

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Introduction The International Computer Music Association is an international affiliation of individuals and institutions involved in the technical, creative, and performance aspects of computer music. It serves composers, computer software and hardware developers, researchers, and musicians who are interested in the integration of music and technology. ICMA functions include: The International Computer Music Conference The ICMA cosponsors the annual ICMC, which, since its inception in 1974, has become the preeminent yearly gathering of computer music practitioners from around the world.

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The Great Lakes and their connecting channels from the largest aggregation of freshwater on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps). The watershed includes parts or all of eight U.S. states and the Canadian province of Ontario. The Lakes are the dominant and defining geological characteristic of the upper Midwest, affecting the social, economic, recreational and ecological life of the region. Bordering as it does on four of the five Great Lakes, the State of Michigan and its universities understand the importance of the Lakes for the future vitality of our state. Accordingly the University of Michigan has pursued an active research program in this area, and seeks to share some of its findings through this site.

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Garden and Forest is the first project of the Preservation Digital Reformatting Program in the Library of Congress's Preservation Reformatting Division. It is the first Library of Congress digitizing project to employ Making of America models. Making of America Making of America (MOA) is a digital library comprising reproductions of primary source materials in American social history published in the late-nineteenth century. The original collaborative effort between the University of Michigan and Cornell University to create MOA was funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

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Volume 49, Issue 3 The Michigan Botanist is the peer-reviewed, quarterly journal of The Michigan Botanical Club established in 1962. The publication is hosted online through the University of Michigan MPublishing services at this site. Membership in the Michigan Botanical Club is open to anyone interested in its aims: Authors receive a page-charge discount for submission of final copy on disk, and members receive an allotment of free pages each year. Individuals wishing to subscribe to the print edition should go to the Membership Page . Institutions should go to the Subscription Page .

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Overview While theoretical biology is often understood to be primarily mathematical in nature, biology is an inherently historical science with a long tradition of conceptual theorizing, from Charles Darwin to the architects of the Modern Synthesis, and continuing through to today. Biological disciplines ranging from evolutionary biology to ecology, from cell to developmental biology, and from morphology to paleobiology are characterized by a lively interplay among empirical data, mathematical treatments, and conceptual discussions. Like theoretical biology, philosophy of biology is characterized by its attention to conceptual issues.

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Polar Bear Expedition Digital Materials Because many of the American troops involved in the intervention were from Michigan, the Bentley Historical Library Michigan Historical Collections has long been interested in documenting this episode. This collection contains digitized versions manuscripts and photographs as well as maps and primary printed source materials relating to the Polar Bear Expedition. The primary guide to the Polar Bear Expedition collections held by the Bentley Historical Library can be found here: Polar Bear Expedition Digital Collections .

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The Organic Agriculture Information Access is an electronic collection of historic United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) publications related to organic agriculture. In this collection, there are almost 200 documents published before 1942 (before synthetic chemicals became widely used) that contain state-of-the-art information and data that is still very pertinent for today's agriculture. Access to this data is intended to provide growers with new ideas on crop production without chemicals, as well as help researchers conserve scarce resources by avoiding unintended duplication.

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The United States and its Territories, drawn from the University of Michigan Library's Southeast Asia collection, comprises the full text of monographs and government documents published in the United States, Spain, and the Philippines between 1870 and 1925. The primary focus of the material is the Spanish-American war and subsequent American governance (approximately 1898-1910). The text collection is complemented by digitized images from key photograph collections drawn from the Special Collections Library.

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This study concerns the controversial case of Alger Hiss, who was suspected of spying for Soviet Military Intelligence. It does not concern his guilt or innocence but whether the U.S. Army Military Intelligence used an undercover spy-catcher to penetrate Hiss’s defense and to plant evidence forged to secure his perjury conviction. If so, Hiss’s conviction—which ushered in the McCarthy era and thrust Richard Nixon to national prominence—represents an alarming intrusion of our military into civil affairs.

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The Transportation History Collection in the Special Collections Library of the University of Michigan contains a unique body of printed and visual materials on transportation technology and travel. Although there are printed items from as early as 1588, the majority of the material is from the 19th and early 20th centuries. International in scope, subjects in the collection include ballooning and dirigibles, early roads, automobiles, canals, bridges, carriages and coaches, and, most notably, railroads. The collection of railroad material consists of over 14,000 items relating to American, Canadian, Mexican, British, French, German, and Russian railroad companies and their rolling stock.

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